The study examined the intentional use of NSOs' stated values. Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS) was applied to an Appreciative Inquiry approach of interviewing NSO senior leadership. Data were collected from nine NSOs through multiple-case studies analysis of interview transcripts, websites, and policy statements. Results indicated that most NSOs operated from a Management by Objectives (MBO) approach rather than a Management by Values (MBV) approach. Ten emergent themes from the case studies analysis contributed to the development of a "5 I Framework". The framework revealed that NSOs' intentional use of values deepened as the organization's values saturation level increased. One intention of this paper was to bridge a connection between academia and practitioners, and in so doing, highlight the gap between values inaction and values-in-action.
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